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Florence Nightingale was a guiding force in the field of nursing. However, what is less well known about this amazing woman is her love of mathematics, especially statistics, and how this love played an important part in her life's work. [32] Nightingale reportedly wrote, "I had the greatest difficulty in repelling Mrs Seacole's advances, and in preventing association between her and my nurses (absolutely out of the question! Bostridge, Mark (2008). The Nightingales belonged to elite social circles but Florence was reportedly awkward in social situations. [133] Nightingale has appeared on international postage stamps, including, the UK, Alderney, Australia, Belgium, Dominica, Hungary (showing the Florence Nightingale medal awarded by the International Red Cross), and Germany. This theory held that diseases could only be transmitted by touch. Although she had been an invalid for a long time, rarely leaving her room, where she passed the time in a half-recumbent position and was under the constant care of a physician, her death was somewhat unexpected. Influenced from an early age by the Wesleyan tradition,[f] Nightingale felt that genuine religion should manifest in active care and love for others. While she held that the ideal health professional should be inspired by a religious as well as professional motive, she said that in practice many religiously motivated health workers were concerned chiefly in securing their own salvation, and that this motivation was inferior to the professional desire to deliver the best possible care. Nightingale was born on May 12, 1820, to a wealthy aristocratic family in Italy, and grew up in England. [11], Nightingale still believed that the death rates were due to poor nutrition, lack of supplies, stale air, and overworking of the soldiers. It appeared at a time when the simple rules of health were only beginning to be known, when its topics were of vital importance not only for the well-being and recovery of patients, when hospitals were riddled with infection, when nurses were still mainly regarded as ignorant, uneducated persons. "Florence Nightingale.". Her birthday is now celebrated as International CFS Awareness Day. ... Born in Florence, Italy #2. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Embley, Hampshire. She recorded that "Clarkey" was a stimulating hostess who did not care for her appearance, and while her ideas did not always agree with those of her guests, "she was incapable of boring anyone." Her approach to caring for wounded soldiers and training nurses in the 19th century saved and improved countless lives, and her ideas on how to stay healthy still resonate today – as politicians give official guidance on how best to battle coronavirus . During the Crimean war, Nightingale gained the nickname "The Lady with the Lamp" from a phrase in a report in The Times: She is a "ministering angel" without any exaggeration in these hospitals, and as her slender form glides quietly along each corridor, every poor fellow's face softens with gratitude at the sight of her. A nurse who posed for the top right panel in 1959 attended the rededication service in October 2010. There she learned basic nursing skills, the importance of patient observation, and the value of good hospital organization. Warped by Victorian romanticism and our antiquated view of women, she has been taught for … Cassandra was a princess of Troy who served as a priestess in the temple of Apollo during the Trojan War. She was born on Friday May 12th 1820, in Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Italy. Taurus Activist #1. Her behaviour was said to be exasperating and eccentric and she had little respect for upper-class British women, whom she regarded generally as inconsequential. In 1951, The Lady with a Lamp starred Anna Neagle. [97], Four hospitals in Istanbul are named after Nightingale: Florence Nightingale Hospital in Şişli (the biggest private hospital in Turkey), Metropolitan Florence Nightingale Hospital in Gayrettepe, European Florence Nightingale Hospital in Mecidiyeköy, and Kızıltoprak Florence Nightingale Hospital in Kadiköy, all belonging to the Turkish Cardiology Foundation. [61][62] She left a large body of work, including several hundred notes that were previously unpublished. Florence Nightingale /ˈnaɪtɪŋɡeɪl/, OM, RRC, DStJ (12 May 1820 – 13 August 1910) was an English social reformer, statistician and the founder of modern nursing. London. Norman L. Johnson, Samuel Kotz (2011). Nightingale argued that secular hospitals usually provided better care than their religious counterparts. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Herbert would be Secretary of War again during the Crimean War, when he and his wife would be instrumental in facilitating Nightingale's nursing work in the Crimea. Florence Nightingale. Nightingale believed religion helped provide people with the fortitude for arduous good work, and would ensure the nurses in her care attended religious services. The carriage was returned to England by Alexis Soyer after the war and subsequently given to the Nightingale training school. The family moved back to London when Florence was a young girl. Nightingale often carried the owl in her pocket, until the pet died (soon before Nightingale left for Crimea). It was restored and transferred to the Army Medical Services Museum, now in Mytchett, Surrey, near Aldershot. [48] In the following year she was given the Honorary Freedom of the City of London. [12] Nightingale's father educated her. Florence Nightingale.[111]. Nightingale came to prominence while serving as a manager and trainer of nurses during the Crimean War, in which she organised care for wounded soldiers. Nightingale experienced a slow recovery, as no active treatment was available. [102] The Nightingale-Macmillan continuing care unit is now at the Royal Derby Hospital, formerly known as The City Hospital, Derby. Say “Florence Nightingale,” and instantly the word nurse pairs with it. [67](p107), The Royal Sanitary Commission of 1868–1869 presented Nightingale with an opportunity to press for compulsory sanitation in private houses. She disliked the role the 19th century Church of England would sometimes play in worsening the oppression of the poor. [citation needed], A stained glass window was commissioned for inclusion in the DRI chapel in the late 1950s. She was named for the city she was born in – Florence, Italy. Nightingale said it was the “Kingdom of Hell.”, In order to care for the soldiers properly, it was necessary that adequate supplies be obtained. In 1936, Kay Francis played Nightingale in the film titled The White Angel. Augsburg Fortress Press, 2006, "Historic C-9 heads to Andrews for retirement", Lady of Grace of the Order of St John (LGStJ), first secular nursing school in the world, William Edward Nightingale, born William Edward Shore, Institute for the Care of Sick Gentlewomen, Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery, Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, "Notes on Nursing: What Nursing Is, What Nursing is Not", "Notes on Nursing for the Labouring Classes", "Introductory Notes on Lying-In Institutions", "Florence Nightingale 2nd rendition, 1890 – greetings to the dear old comrades of Balaclava", "Florence Nightingale: the Lady with the Lamp", "The true Florence: Exploring the Italian birthplace of Florence Nightingale", "Pedigree of Shore of Sheffield, Meersbrook, Norton and Tapton", "Life and death of Florence Nightingale's beloved pet", "Shining a light on 'The Lady with the Lamp, "Nightingale in Scutari: Her Legacy Reexamined", "The Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing", "Florence Nightingale: the medical superstar", "Bicentenary of a hospital built from a rum deal", The Life of Florence Nightingale vol. Florence Nightingale was born on 12 May 1820 into a wealthy and well-connected British family at the Villa Colombaia,[8][9] in Florence, Tuscany, Italy, and was named after the city of her birth. [132] A Dutch KLM McDonnell-Douglas MD-11 (registration PH-KCD) was also named in her honour. [50] Most authorities today accept that Nightingale suffered from a particularly extreme form of brucellosis, the effects of which only began to lift in the early 1880s. The first theatrical representation of Nightingale was Reginald Berkeley's The Lady with the Lamp, premiering in London in 1929 with Edith Evans in the title role. She has a dream to serve the sick and poor. [55], However, she did have several important and long-lasting friendships with women. Nightingale worked hard to educate herself in the art and science of nursing, in the face of opposition from her family and the restrictive social code for affluent young English women. As a child living on the family es… In 1853 Nightingale sought to break free from her family environment. And two English Lady superintendents have told me the same thing. "Victorian statistical graphics and the iconography of Florence Nightingale's polar area graph,". F lorence Nightingale was born 200 years ago this month. Nightingale scholar Lynn McDonald has dismissed these criticisms as "often preposterous", arguing they are not supported by the primary sources. [67](p98), Lytton Strachey was famous for his book debunking 19th century heroes, Eminent Victorians (1918). [77] An effort to correct this was made with a 2008 publication by Wilfrid Laurier University, as volume 11[78] of a 16 volume project, the Collected Works of Florence Nightingale. She considered becoming the superintendent of nurses at King’s College Hospital in London. Sylvester.". [114], Portrayals of Nightingale on television, in documentary as in fiction, vary – the BBC's 2008 Florence Nightingale, featuring Laura Fraser,[115] emphasised her independence and feeling of religious calling, but in Channel 4's 2006 Mary Seacole: The Real Angel of the Crimea, she is portrayed as narrow-minded and opposed to Seacole's efforts. "[17] Later in 1850, she visited the Lutheran religious community at Kaiserswerth-am-Rhein in Germany, where she observed Pastor Theodor Fliedner and the deaconesses working for the sick and the deprived. letter 4 August 1870, Wellcome Ms 9004/59). [6], In 2002, Nightingale was ranked number 52 in the BBC's list of the 100 Greatest Britons following a UK-wide vote. Cornelius married Ellen Nightingale (born Pearson) on month day 1827, at age 31 at marriage place. When they returned to England in 1821, the Nightingale family lived in two homes. In 1904, she was appointed a Lady of Grace of the Order of St John (LGStJ). The two were to remain friends for the rest of their lives. It makes the impression upon one that thousands of voices do, uniting in one unanimous simultaneous feeling of enthusiasm or emotion, which is said to overcome the strongest man."[17]. [107], In Istanbul, the northernmost tower of the Selimiye Barracks building is now the Florence Nightingale Museum. [92], The Florence Nightingale Declaration Campaign,[93] established by nursing leaders throughout the world through the Nightingale Initiative for Global Health (NIGH), aims to build a global grassroots movement to achieve two United Nations Resolutions for adoption by the UN General Assembly of 2008. Her family home was Lea Hurst in Derbyshire. Florence Nightingale Is A Member Of . Seacole's own memoir, Wonderful Adventures of Mrs Seacole in Many Lands¸ records only one, friendly, meeting with her, when she asked her for a bed for the night, and got it; Seacole was in Scutari en route to the Crimea to join her business partner and start their business. A lady with a lamp I see Sidney Herbert, secretary of state at war for the British government, wrote to Nightingale requesting that she lead a group of nurses to Scutari. The first name of Florence Nightingale came from the city name (Florence) where she was born, and the last name was inherited from her father (Nightingale), it’s one of the interesting facts. [6] Much of her writing, including her extensive work on religion and mysticism, has only been published posthumously. Mary Clare Moore headed the first wave and placed herself and her Sisters under the authority of Nightingale. There are three statues of Nightingale in Derby – one outside the Derbyshire Royal Infirmary (DRI), one in St Peter's Street, and one above the Nightingale-Macmillan Continuing Care Unit opposite the Derbyshire Royal Infirmary. Some of the work was damaged and the tenth panel was dismantled for the glass to be used in repair of the remaining panels. And flit from room to room. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. [58], Florence Nightingale died peacefully in her sleep in her room at 10 South Street, Mayfair, London, on 13 August 1910, at the age of 90. [66] She used methods such as the pie chart, which had first been developed by William Playfair in 1801. She was born on May 12, 1820, and is considered the founder of modern nursing and an innovator in the use of medical statistics. After she returned to Britain and began collecting evidence before the Royal Commission on the Health of the Army, she came to believe that most of the soldiers at the hospital were killed by poor living conditions. (William Edward’s original surname was Shore; he changed his name to Nightingale after inheriting his great-uncle’s estate in 1815.) Florence Nightingale was born into an upper-class British family in Florence, Italy on the 12 May 1820.She had a fractious relationship with her mother who was class-conscious. In 1912, a biographical silent film titled The Victoria Cross, starring Julia Swayne Gordon as Nightingale, was released, followed in 1915 by another silent film, Florence Nightingale, featuring Elisabeth Risdon. The lingering effects of the disease were to last for 25 years, frequently confining her to bed because of severe chronic pain. [19] Her father had given her an annual income of £500 (roughly £40,000/US$65,000 in present terms), which allowed her to live comfortably and to pursue her career.[20]. The treatment there was significantly less expensive than in Switzerland. John Wiley & Sons. She became Herbert's key adviser throughout his political career, though she was accused by some of having hastened Herbert's death from Bright's Disease in 1861 because of the pressure her programme of reform placed on him. Historian of science I. Bernard Cohen argues: Nightingale's achievements are all the more impressive when they are considered against the background of social restraints on women in Victorian England. In those days, women of Nightingale's class did not attend universities and did not pursue professional careers; their purpose in life was to marry and bear children. In 2006, the Japanese public ranked Nightingale number 17 in The Top 100 Historical Persons in Japan. Florence Nightingale was born on 12 May 1820 into a wealthy and well-connected British family at the Villa Colombaia, in Florence, Tuscany, Italy, and was named after the city of her birth. Born on May 12, 1820 At age 17, she wrote about her “calling” in her diary, “God spoke to me and called me to His service.” Age 31 (1851) in Kaiserwerth, Germany, she completed her nursing training After her training, she became the superintendent of the Hospital for Invalid Gentlewoman in London. [49], From 1857 onwards, Nightingale was intermittently bedridden and suffered from depression. Tan-Feng Chang, CREOLIZING THE WHITE WOMAN’S BURDEN: MARY SEACOLE PLAYING “MOTHER” AT THE COLONIAL CROSSROADS BETWEEN PANAMA AND CRIMEA, (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2017), p. 526. Florence's older sister Frances Parthenope had similarly been named after her place of birth, Parthenope, a Greek settlement now part of the city of Naples. [13], Nightingale underwent the first of several experiences that she believed were calls from God in February 1837 while at Embley Park, prompting a strong desire to devote her life to the service of others. At the closure of the DRI the window was again removed and stored. Yet the real God is far more merciful than any human creature ever was or can ever imagine. Florence Nightingale, the “Lady with the Lamp,” at the Barrack Hospital at Scutari (Üsküdar) in 1854 during the Crimean War. [71] Following the report The Royal Commission on India (1858–1863), which included drawings done by her cousin, artist Hilary Bonham Carter, with whom Nightingale had lived,[e] Nightingale concluded that the health of the army and the people of India had to go hand in hand and so campaigned to improve the sanitary conditions of the country as a whole. "Cassandra" protests the over-feminisation of women into near helplessness, such as Nightingale saw in her mother's and older sister's lethargic lifestyle, despite their education. She rejected their life of thoughtless comfort for the world of social service. Fanny's father (Florence's maternal grandfather) was the abolitionist and Unitarian William Smith. Florence Nightingale, who was born 200 years ago, is rightly famed for revolutionizing nursing. Medicines were in short supply, hygiene was being neglected, and mass infections were common, many of them fatal. Nightingale called a compilation of such diagrams a "coxcomb", but later that term would frequently be used for the individual diagrams. Never satisfied with the traditional female skills of home management, she preferred to read the great philosophers and to engage in serious political and social discourse with her father. She aspired to serve others, in particular, she wanted to become a nurse. Although her parents were from England, she was born in Italy while they were traveling. While in Athens, Greece, Nightingale rescued a juvenile little owl from a group of children who were tormenting it, and she named the owl Athena. Charles Dickens caricatured the standard of care in his 1842–1843 published novel Martin Chuzzlewit in the figure of Sarah Gamp as being incompetent, negligent, alcoholic and corrupt. "[82], Despite being named as a Unitarian in several older sources, Nightingale's own rare references to conventional Unitarianism are mildly negative. [28] Death rates were sharply reduced, but she never claimed credit for helping to reduce the death rate. Florence Nightingale was born in Villa Colombia to a British family that was rich and of upper class to her parents who were William Edward Nightingale and Frances Nightingale. "Ever Yours, Florence Nightingale: Selected Letters.". [91], The Nightingale Pledge is a modified version of the Hippocratic Oath which nurses recite at their pinning ceremony at the end of training. Nightingale was considered a pioneer in the concept of medical tourism as well, based on her 1856 letters describing spas in the Ottoman Empire. Nightingale was named after her birthplace, Florence, Italy, where her parents were temporary residents. Her ideas inspired the volunteer body of the United States Sanitary Commission. Before the experiments of the mid-1860s by Pasteur and Lister, hardly anyone took germ theory seriously; even afterwards, many medical practitioners were unconvinced. Probably she was the most extraordinary nurse in history. Nightingale published "Cassandra," a feminist essay denouncing women's role in Victorian England. She was also a pioneer in data visualization with the use of infographics, effectively using graphical presentations of statistical data. Florence Nightingale, byname Lady with the Lamp, (born May 12, 1820, Florence [Italy]—died August 13, 1910, London, England), British nurse, statistician, and social reformer who was the foundational philosopher of modern nursing. Nightingale occasionally worked with a cat around her neck. Nightingale's output slowed down considerably in her last decade. [6] In 1860, she laid the foundation of professional nursing with the establishment of her nursing school at St Thomas' Hospital in London. Ellen was born on August 29 1802, in Ashover, Derbyshire, England. [6], Nightingale made a comprehensive statistical study of sanitation in Indian rural life and was the leading figure in the introduction of improved medical care and public health service in India. Florence Nightingale David, also known as F. N. David (23 August 1909 – 23 July 1993) was an English statistician, born in Ivington, Herefordshire, England. Nightingale was also the subject of one of Lytton Strachey's four mercilessly provocative biographical essays, Eminent Victorians. As well as a standing portrait, she was depicted on the notes in a field hospital, holding her lamp. Florence Nightingale was born on May 12, 1820, in Florence, Italy. After Nightingale sent a plea to The Times for a government solution to the poor condition of the facilities, the British Government commissioned Isambard Kingdom Brunel to design a prefabricated hospital that could be built in England and shipped to the Dardanelles. Her parents took their daughters to both Church of England and Methodist churches. [126], Cecil Woodham-Smith, like Strachey, relied heavily on Cook's Life in her 1950 biography, though she did have access to new family material preserved at Claydon. A black-and-white photograph taken in about 1907 by Lizzie Caswall Smith at Nightingale's London home in South Street, Mayfair, was auctioned on 19 November 2008 by Dreweatts auction house in Newbury, Berkshire, England, for £5,500. [citation needed], Nightingale wrote Notes on Nursing (1859). [74] Her Crimean War statistics had convinced her that non-medical approaches were more effective given the state of knowledge at the time. Florence Nightingale was born into an upper class British family in 1820 in Florence, Tuscany, Italy. [23] They were deployed about 295 nautical miles (546 km; 339 mi) across the Black Sea from Balaklava in the Crimea, where the main British camp was based. She remained in the Church of England throughout her life, albeit with unorthodox views. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Florence-Nightingale, The Victorian Web - Biography of Florence Nightingale, Spartacus Educational - Biography of Florence Nightingale, MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive - Biography of Florence Nightingale, South African History Online - Biography of Florence Nightingale, Heritage History - Biography of Florence Nightingale, Florence Nightingale - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Florence Nightingale - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. William's mother Mary née Evans was the niece of Peter Nightingale, under the terms of whose will William inherited his estate at Lea Hurst, and assumed the name and arms of Nightingale. [h] She would sometimes comfort those in her care with this view. In the Crimea on 29 November 1855, the Nightingale Fund was established for the training of nurses during a public meeting to recognise Nightingale for her work in the war. They will declare: The International Year of the Nurse–2010 (the centenary of Nightingale's death); The UN Decade for a Healthy World – 2011 to 2020 (the bicentenary of Nightingale's birth). In 1859 Florence Nightingale published her book Notes on Nursing: What It Is, and What It Is Not, a step-by-step guide explaining her methods for attending to the sick. Her admirers include Country Joe of Country Joe and the Fish, who has assembled an extensive website in her honour. Nightingale led an officially sanctioned party of 38 women, departing October 21, 1854, and arriving in Scutari at the Barrack Hospital on November 5. As of 2016, the Florence Nightingale Declaration has been signed by over 25,000 signatories from 106 countries. She was a strong opponent of discrimination both against Christians of different denominations, and against those of non-Christian religions. This week marks the 200th anniversary of Florence Nightingale’s birth. In the same 1861 letter she wrote, "It makes me mad, the Women's Rights talk about 'the want of a field' for them – when I would gladly give £500 a year for a Woman secretary. [31] Nightingale told her brother-in-law, in a private letter, that she was worried about contact between her work and Seacole's business, claiming that while “she was very kind to the men and, what is more, to the Officers – and did some good (she) made many drunk”. He and Nightingale became lifelong close friends. Sailing up the Nile as far as Abu Simbel in January 1850, she wrote of the Abu Simbel temples, "Sublime in the highest style of intellectual beauty, intellect without effort, without suffering ... not a feature is correct — but the whole effect is more expressive of spiritual grandeur than anything I could have imagined. Florence Nightingale was born on May 12, 1820. At the same time, Nightingale wrote to her friend Liz Herbert, Sidney’s wife, asking that she be allowed to lead a private expedition. [69] In 1874 she became an honorary member of the American Statistical Association. [3] She gave nursing a favourable reputation and became an icon of Victorian culture, especially in the persona of "The Lady with the Lamp" making rounds of wounded soldiers at night.[4][5]. In 2009, a stage musical play representation of Nightingale entitled The Voyage of the Lass was produced by the Association of Nursing Service Administrators of the Philippines. Updates? Named after the city of her birth, Nightingale was born at the Villa Colombia in Florence, Italy, on 12 May 1820. [14], As a young woman, Nightingale was described as attractive, slender and graceful. [131], In 1981, the asteroid 3122 Florence was named after her. This experience influenced her later career, when she advocated sanitary living conditions as of great importance. Feminism, Lytton Strachey, and Florence Nightingale's Reputation, 1918–39. Her father, William Edward Nightingale (1794-1874), was son of William Shore, a Sheffield banker. [43], In the 1870s, Nightingale mentored Linda Richards, "America's first trained nurse", and enabled her to return to the United States with adequate training and knowledge to establish high-quality nursing schools. Florence Nightingale's most famous contribution came during the Crimean War, which became her central focus when reports got back to Britain about the horrific conditions for the wounded. The book served as the cornerstone of the curriculum at the Nightingale School and other nursing schools, though it was written specifically for the education of those nursing at home. Born in Florence, Italy, her parents decided to name her after the place of her birth, a tradition they had started with her older sister Frances Parthenope. Her father, William Shore Nightingale, was a wealthy landowner who had inherited estates in England. The family moved back to England in 1821, with Nightingale being brought up in the family's homes at Embley, Hampshire, and Lea Hurst, Derbyshire. While taken for granted now, it was at the time a relatively novel method of presenting data. Despite family reservations, Nightingale was eventually able to enroll at the Institution of Protestant Deaconesses at Kaiserswerth in Germany for two weeks of training in July 1850 and again for three months in July 1851. At the same time she combined with the retired sanitary reformer Edwin Chadwick to persuade Stansfeld to devolve powers to enforce the law to Local Authorities, eliminating central control by medical technocrats. Lo! —, There were rumors that she was tutored by an eminent mathematician who was a friend of the family. During her bedridden years, she also did pioneering work in the field of hospital planning, and her work propagated quickly across Britain and the world. "[53][54] She often referred to herself in the masculine, as for example "a man of action" and "a man of business". [citation needed], Nightingale had £45,000 at her disposal from the Nightingale Fund to set up the Nightingale Training School at St Thomas' Hospital on 9 July 1860. Consequently, she reduced peacetime deaths in the army and turned her attention to the sanitary design of hospitals and the introduction of sanitation in working-class homes (see Statistics and Sanitary Reform, below). While her demeanour was often severe, she was said to be very charming and to possess a radiant smile. Created in 1893 and named after Nightingale as the founder of modern nursing, the pledge is a statement of the ethics and principles of the nursing profession. Learn about Florence Nightingale: her birthday, what she did before fame, her family life, fun trivia facts, popularity rankings, and more. She also was instrumental in setting up training for midwives and nurses in workhouse infirmaries. Taurus. [14], In Rome in 1847, she met Sidney Herbert, a politician who had been Secretary at War (1845–1846) who was on his honeymoon. However, Seacole pointed out that when she tried to join Nightingale's group, one of Nightingale's colleagues rebuffed her, and Seacole inferred that racism was at the root of that rebuttal. During that night alarming symptoms developed and she gradually sank until 2 o'clock Saturday afternoon, when the end came. She was the first woman awarded the Order of Merit (1907). [104][105], Upon the centenary of Nightingale's death in 2010, and to commemorate her connection with Malvern, the Malvern Museum held a Florence Nightingale exhibit[106] with a school poster competition to promote some events. 5. Clarke demonstrated that women could be equals to men, an idea that Florence had not obtained from her mother. Florence Nightingale's voice was saved for posterity in a phonograph recording from 1890 preserved in the British Library Sound Archive. The recording, made in aid of the Light Brigade Relief Fund and available to hear online, says: When I am no longer even a memory, just a name, I hope my voice may perpetuate the great work of my life. Florence Nightingale was born in the city of Florence, Italy, on 12 May 1820whilst her parents were enjoying a long honeymoon. Nightingale spent the rest of her life promoting and organising the nursing profession.

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