Early authors envisioned ways for empiric knowledge to be created and displayed. Normal schools were established for the training of teachers and nursing schools were available for training nurses, but, to obtain long-term security, women were required to conform to the role of wife or daughter. This literature is replete with directives for nursing actions required to rectify societal injustices and conditions that privilege one group over another. Such an attitude questions the establishment of rules as the basis for biomedical ethics and validates a relational perspective for ethical conduct. There are many ways to think about nursing, Nursing theoretical works clearly focus on the patient, These theories guide nursing research and practice. Martha Scheckel PhD, RN. Nurse recruits also learned what sort of person a nurse should be through the imposition of rigid rules that regulated most aspects of behavior, including sleeping, eating, socializing, and dress, both inside and outside the hospital walls. Science, they asserted, needed to be integrated as an art. Nursing has been fundamentally linked with a nurturing role toward the infirm, ill, and less fortunate. The treatments prescribed and the continuing plan for care were also important. Despite shifts in their functions, nurses have played a role in the care of the ill since the beginning of recorded history. The theory era began with a strong emphasis on knowledge development. The work of scientists and philosophers such as Copernicus, Galileo, Bacon, and Newton began to lay the groundwork for a view of disease as the result of natural rather than spiritual causes. something that will make it less easy for so many illnesses to occur, that will bring better conditions of life. Nursing was viewed primarily as a nurturing and technical art that required apprenticeship learning and innate personality traits that were congruent with that art (Hughes, 1990). Today that criterion calling for recognition of a specialized body of knowledge for nursing practice is more relevant than ever as the discipline of nursing embraces challenging changes in society and health care. The paper stems from the author's study of knowledge claims enshrined in nursing journal articles, books and conference speeches. Muriel Burgess (1941), a nursing student, outlined the “facts of care,” which included diagnosis; social factors, such as heredity, environment, and education; and medical factors, such as history of family, history of the present illness, symptom onset, physical examination, and laboratory and radiography findings. (p. 1087). knowledge sharing – partnering with healthcare providers to support collaboration, learning capability and knowledge sharing on healthcare innovation and improvement • continuous capability building – working with healthcare providers to build capability in redesign, project management and change management through the Centre for Healthcare Redesign. Continued theory development is essential for our progress as a profession, and as a discipline this is especially important. This movement toward professionalism provides a context to understand the eras as nursing’s march toward achievement of a body of nursing knowledge. ERAS nursing program was the only independent risk factor for SRCs in LRC patients (OR 2.04, 95%CI 1.31–3.12, P = 0.016) by the multivariate logistic regression analysis. The theme for the Chicago conference was Nursing Education; however, Sister Callista Roy’s workshop illustrating the use of her adaptation conceptual framework as a guide for nursing education was so popular that the theme for the New York conference a year later was Nursing Theory. Despite that training, they saw nursing as independent and vital and as having a firm knowledge base. After reading this chapter you will be able to: Develop an understanding of the historical evolutions, contributions, and differences of various nursing education programs. With the development of advanced educational programs, nurses began to formally consider the processes for the development of nursing knowledge. She insisted that women who were trained nurses control and staff early nursing schools and manage and control nursing practice in homes and hospitals to create a context that was supportive of nursing’s art. AJN was one early symbol of nursing’s movement toward professional status, and another was their need to communicate with other nurses about their practice and about teaching nursing. In this era, nursing publications began to proliferate and time has shown three publications of this era to be particularly important to this history: Carper’s (1978) patterns of knowing, Fawcett’s (1978) description of the helical relationship between theory and research, and the first edition of Advances in Nursing Science (1978) where Carper and Fawcett’s seminal articles were published. Like contemporary scholars, these and other early nursing leaders kept alive the ideals of practice as chronicled by Nightingale, and they used multiple ways of knowing to ground improvements in health care and nursing practice. Results: In the study 84.25% of the nurses stated that they did not know about the ERAS protocol, 88.97% indicated that the institution where they were working did not implement ERAS practices… NANDA‐I, NOC, and NIC Linkages to SARS‐Cov‐2 (Covid‐19): Part 1. substantive issues focused on scientific knowledge, the idea that nursing requires the development of a broad knowledge base that includes all patterns of knowing has never been lost. Bixler and Bixler stated that scientific compartmentalizations were artificial, arbitrary, and to be avoided by nursing science.